Acute Coronary Syndrome

Symptoms Suggestive of ACS

Acute coronary syndrome involves a sudden obstruction of blood flow to the heart. The condition may result in unstable angina (chest pain that occurs when a person is at rest, as opposed to chest pain with exertion); if severe enough, it can lead to myocardial infarction. When blood supply is reduced or cut off to […]

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ACS and ROSC

The treatment of choice for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction is coronary angioplasty with or without stent placement. The goal of health care providers in managing patients with this type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is to treat within the first hours of the onset of symptoms.1 Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can restore flow of blood into […]

Myocardial Infarction: Prognosis and Predictors of Mortality

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Glucose Control in Post-Cardiac Arrest Care

Hyperglycemia in critically ill patients, such as post-cardiac arrest patients, is associated with poor clinical outcomes.1-2 Critically ill patients have an increase in the production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, growth hormone, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis that is responsible for hyperglycemia.3 Likewise, more than 80% of these patients demonstrate insulin resistance.4 Hyperglycemia following trauma increases mortality, hospital length of stay, intensive care […]

ECG Interpretation in Myocardial Ischemia

Approach to ECG Interpretation Step 1: Rate – The normal range of heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute. Bradycardia is present if the rate is less than 60 beats per minute and tachycardia is present if the rate is greater than 100 beats per minute. Step 2: Rhythm – Locate the P waves. All leads should be […]

Biomarkers of Cardiac Injury

The diagnosis of AMI involves multiple clinical tools including the evaluation of cardiac biomarkers. Learn more about cardiac biomarkers.


THROMBINS2 is the cue to help guide care when treatment for ACS is quickly needed. Learn about this mnemonic device for treating ACS.